Network & Model of Networking

NETWORK networks

A collection of computing devices that are connected in various ways in order to communicate and share resources usually, the connections between computers in a network are made using physical wires or cables. However, some connections are wireless, using radio waves or infrared signals or microwaves.

We need to know a more detailed and specific answer to the question “What is a network?”

First, consider the following, but general, definition of a network.

A combination of computer hardware, cabling, network devices, and computer software used together to allow computers to communicate with each other.”

The goal of any computer network is to allow multiple computers to communicate. The type of communication can be as varied as the type of conversations.

Model of the Networking

Model means the connectivity of two computers. We have many types of networking models.

1. Client – Server Model (Domain level network)

2. Peer to Peer Model (Workgroup Model)

1. Client –Server Model (DOMAIN LEVEL MODEL)


In a Client- server model we have one server and many clients. A Client does not share any of its resources, but requests to take a server’s  service function. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await incoming requests. The client–server model of computing is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requester, called clients. On the point of view of administrator it’s very easy to control the network because we combine with the server also at security point of view. It is very useful because it uses user level security in which users have to remember only one password to share the resources.


When a  customer accesses online e-commerce’s site  services  for shopping with a web browser (the client), the client initiates a request to the e-commerce’s site”  web server. The customer’s login credentials may be stored in a database, and the web server accesses the “database server” as a client.  An application server interprets the returned data by applying the e-commerce’s site “business logic”, and provides the output (with your  profile, History, Bucket,wishlist etc ) to the web server. Finally, the web server returns the result to the client web browser for display.

In each step of this sequence of client–server message exchanges, a computer processes a request and returns data. This is the request-response messaging pattern. When all the requests are met, the sequence is complete and the web browser presents the data to the customer.

This example illustrates a design pattern applicable to the client–server model:

2. Peer to Peer Model (Work group Model)


In Peer to Peer networking model all computers are in equal status, that is we cannot manage centralization, administration security. So we can say that “A peer-to-peer (P2P) networking which interconnected nodes (“peers”) share resources among-st each other without the use of a centralized administrative system” 

In its simplest form,

  1. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer.
  2. peer-to-peer (P2P) network can be an ad-hoc connection(Bluetooth) &  A couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) to transfer files.
  3. peer-to-peer (P2P) network also can be a permanent infrastructure that links a half-dozen computers in a small office over copper wires.

P2P Network’s Work


This diagram shows how a P2P network operates. The solid lines indicate physical, hard-wired network cables. The dotted lines indicate that each PC can communicate and share files with every other PC on such a network. A printer attached to one PC can be used by other PCs on the network, if that printer’s PC allows such use.


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